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Teen driver

Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) Laws

Novice drivers have higher crash rates. Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) programs allow young drivers to safely gain driving experience before obtaining full driving privileges. Most programs include three stages:

During the 1990s, many states began enacting GDL laws. The programs and types of restrictions vary from state to state. Below are some highlights:

NOTE: GHSA does not compile any additional data on GDL laws other than what is presented here. For more information, consult the appropriate State Highway Safety Office.

State Learner Stage Intermediate Stage Full Privilege
Min. Age
(Years/ Months)
Min. Age
(Years/ Months)
Min.
Duration
(Months)
Required
Supervised
Driving Hours
(Night Hours)
Min. Age
(Years/ Months)
Nighttime Driving Restriction Passenger
Restriction
(except family, unless noted)
Alabama 15 6 30; 0 w/ driver's ed. 16 Midnight - 6 a.m. No more than 1 17
Alaska 14 6 40 (10) 16 1 a.m. - 5 a.m. First 6 mos.–no pass. <21 16 / 6
Arizona 15 / 6 6 30 (10); 0 w/ driver's ed. 16 Midnight - 5 a.m.
(secondary enforcement)
First 6 mos.–no more than 1 <18
(secondary enforcement)
16 / 6
Arkansas 14 6 None 16 11 p.m. - 4 a.m. No more than 1 18
California 15 / 6 6 50 (10) 16 11 p.m. - 5 a.m.
(secondary enforcement)
First 12 mos.–no pass. <20
(secondary enforcement)
17
Colorado 15 (w/ driver's ed.)

15 / 6 (w/ driver awareness program)

16 (w/out driver's ed. or program)
12 50 (10) 16 Midnight - 5 a.m.
(secondary enforcement)
First 6 mos.–no pass. <21; second 6 mos.–no more than 1 <21
(secondary enforcement)
17
Connecticut 16 4 (w/ driver's ed.)

6 (w/out driver's ed.)
40 16 / 4 11 p.m. -
5 a.m.
First 6 mos.–no pass. except parents or instructor; second 6 mos––no pass. except parents, instructor or immediate family Night: 18
Passenger: 17 / 4
Delaware 1 16 6 50 (10) 16 / 6 10 p.m. - 6 a.m. No more than 1 17
D.C. 16 6 40 (10 in intermediate stage) 16 / 6 Sept. to June
11 p.m. - 6 a.m. (Su-Th);
midnight - 6 a.m. (Fr-Sa)

July-Aug
midnight - 6 a.m.
First 6 mos.–no pass.; thereafter–no more than 2 18
Florida 15 12 50 (10) 16 Age 16
11 p.m. - 6 a.m. Age 17
1 a.m. - 5 a.m.
No restriction 18
Georgia 15 12 40 (6) 16 Midnight - 6 a.m.
(secondary enforcement)
First 6 mos.–no pass; second 6 mos.–no more than 1 <21; thereafter–no more than 3
(secondary enforcement)
18
Guam 16 No data
Hawaii 15 / 6 6 50 (10) 16 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. No more than 1 <18 17
Idaho 14 / 6 6 50 (10) 15 Sunrise - sunset First 6 mos.–no more than 1 <17 Night: 16
Passenger: 15 / 6
Illinois 15 9 50 (10) 16 Su-Th
10 p.m. - 6 a.m.

Fr-Sa
11 p.m. - 6 a.m.
First 12 mos.–no more than 1 <20 Night: 18
Passenger:
17
Indiana 15 (w/ driver's ed)

16 (w/out driver's ed)
6 50 (10) 16 / 6 (w/ driver's ed)

16 / 9 (w/out driver's ed)
First 180 days–10 p.m. - 5 a.m.

After 180 days–11 p.m. - 5 a.m. (Su. - Th.); 1 - 5 a.m. (Fr. - Sat.)
First 180 days–no pass. Night: 18
Passenger: 17 (w/ driver's ed)

17 / 3 (w/out driver's ed)
Iowa 14 12 20 (2) Learner

10 (2) Intermediate
16 12:30 a.m. - 5 a.m. First 6 mos.–no more than 1 <18, parents may waive 17
Kansas 2 14 12 50 (10) 16 First 6 mos.–9 p.m. - 5 a.m. First 6 mos.–no more than 1 non sibling 16 / 6
Kentucky 16 6 60 (10) 16 / 6 Midnight - 6 a.m. No more than 1 <20 unless supervised by instructor
(secondary enforcement)
17
Louisiana 15 6 50 (15) 16 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. No more than 1 <21 between 6 p.m. - 5 a.m. 17
Maine 15 6 70 (10) 16 Midnight - 5 a.m. First 9 mos.–no pass. 16 / 6
Maryland 15 / 9 9 60 (10) 16 / 6 Midnight - 5 a.m. First 5 mos.–no pass. <18
(secondary enforcement)
Night: 18
Passenger: 16 / 11
Mass. 16 6 40; 30 w/ advanced driver training 16 / 6 12:30 a.m. - 5 a.m.
(secondary enf. 12:30 a.m. - 1 a.m. and 4 a.m. - 5 a.m.)
First 6 mos.–no pass. <18 Night: 18
Passenger: 17
Michigan 14 / 9 6 50 (10) 16 10 p.m. - 5 a.m. No more than 1 <21 17
Minnesota 15 6 40 (15)
(eff. 1/2015)
16 Midnight - 5 a.m. First 6 mos.–no more than 1 <20; second 6 mos.–no more than 3 <20 Night: 16 / 6
Passenger:
17
Mississippi 15 12 None 16 Su-Th
10 p.m. - 6 a.m.

Fr-Sa
11:30 p.m. - 6 a.m.
No restriction 16 / 6
Missouri 15 6 40 (10) 16 1 a.m. - 5 a.m. First 6 mos.–no more than 1 <19; thereafter–no more than 3 <19 18
Montana 14 / 6 6 50 (10) 15 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. First 6 mos.–no more than 1 <18; second 6 mos.–no more than 3 <18 16
Nebraska 15 6 50 (10); 0 w/ driver's ed. 16 Midnight - 6 a.m.
(secondary enforcement)
First 6 mos.–no more than 1 <19
(secondary enforcement)
Night: 17
Passenger:
16 / 6
Nevada 15 / 6 6 50 (10) 16 10 p.m. - 5 a.m.
(secondary enforcement)
First 6 mos.–no pass. <18
(secondary enforcement)
Night: 18
Pass: 16 / 6
New Hampshire 15 / 6 None 40 (10) 16 1 a.m. - 4 a.m. First 6 mos.–no more than 1 <25 Night: 17 /1
Pass: 16 / 6
New Jersey 16 6 None 17 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. No more than 1 (exception limited to drivers' dependents) 18
New Mexico 15 6 50 (10) 15 / 6 Midnight - 5 a.m. No more than 1 <21 16 / 6
New York 16 6 50 (15) 16 / 6 9 p.m. - 5 a.m. No more than 1 <21 17 (w/ driver's ed.)

18 (w/out driver's ed.)
North Carolina 15 12 60 (10) during Learner stage

12 (6) during Intermediate stage
16 9 p.m. - 5 a.m. No more than 1 <21; if <21 pass. is family, no other non-family pass. <21 16 / 6
North Dakota 3 14 12 (for <16); otherwise 6 or until age 18 (whichever comes first) 50 (for <16); otherwise none 16; 15 for parent restricted license Sunset or 9 p.m. (whichever is later) - 5 a.m. No restriction (other than vehicle manufacturer recs.) 16
Northern Mariana Islands 15 / 6 No data
Ohio 15 / 6 6 50 (10) 16 Age 16
Midnight - 6 a.m.

Age 17
1 a.m. - 5 a.m.
(secondary enforcement)
No more than 1 unless supervised Night: 18
Passenger: 17
Oklahoma 15 / 6 6 50 (10) 16 10 p.m. - 5 a.m. No more than 1 16 / 6 (w/ driver's ed.)

17 (w/out driver's ed.)
Oregon 15 6 50
(100 w/out driver ed.)
16 Midnight - 5 a.m. (w/ licensed pass. >25 exempt) First 6 mos.–no pass.<20; second 6 mos.–no more than 3 <20 17
Pennsylvania 16 6 65 (10)
(5 inclement weather)
16 / 6 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. First 6 mos.–no more than 1 <18 17 (w/ driver's ed. and 12 mo. free of crash or conviction)

18 (w/out driver's ed.)
Rhode Island 16 6 50 (10) 16 / 6 1 a.m. - 5 a.m. First 12 mos.–no more than 1 <21 17 / 6
South Carolina 15 6 40 (10) 15 / 6 EST
6 p.m. - 6 a.m.

EDT
8 p.m. - 6 a.m.
No more than 2 <21 unless to/from school 16 / 6
South Dakota 14 180 days (less 90 days w/ driver's ed) None 14 + 180 days
(less 90 days w/ driver's ed)
10 p.m. - 6 a.m. No restriction 16
Tennessee 15 6 50 (10) 16 11 p.m. - 6 a.m. No more than 1 17
Texas 15 6 30 (10) 16 Midnight - 5 a.m.
(secondary enforcement)
No more than 1 <21
(secondary enforcement)
18
Utah 15 6 40 (10) 16 Midnight - 5 a.m. First 6 mos.–no pass.
(secondary enforcement)
Night: 17
Pass: 16 / 6
Vermont 15 12 40 (10) 16 No restriction First 3 mos.–no pass. without exception; second 3 mos.–no pass. except family (secondary enforcement) 16 / 6
Virgin Islands No GDL law
Virginia 15 / 6 9 45 (15) 16 / 3 Midnight - 4 a.m.
(secondary enforcement)
First 12 mos.–no more than 1 <21; thereafter–no more than 3 <21
(secondary enforcement)
18
Washington 15

15 / 6 (w/out driver's ed.)
6 50 (10) 16 1 a.m. - 5 a.m.
(secondary enforcement)
First 6 mos.–no pass. <20; remainder–no more than 3 <20
(secondary enforcement)
18
West Virginia 15 6 50 (10); 0 w/ driver's ed. 16 10 p.m. - 5 a.m. First 6 mos.–no pass. <20;second 6 mos.–no more than 1 <20 17
Wisconsin 15 / 6 6 30 (10) 16 Midnight - 5 a.m. No more than 1 16 / 9
Wyoming 15 10 days 50 (10) 16 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. No more than 1 <18 16 / 6
Total States Age (# of States)
14 (6)
14 / 6 (2)
14 / 9 (1)
15 (23)
15 / 6 (9 + Northern Mariana Islands)
15 / 9 (1)
16 (8 + D.C., Guam)
Duration (# of States)
None (1)
10 days (1)
4 mos. (1)
6 mos. (35 + D.C.)
180 days (1)
9 mos. (3)
12 mos. (8)
46 + D.C. require at least some supervised driving

4 do not require any w/ driver's ed.

4 do not require any
Age (# of States)
14 + 180 days (1)
15 (2)
15 / 6 (2)
16 (34)
16 / 3 (1)
16 / 4 (1)
16 / 6 (8 + D.C.)
17 (1)
49 + D.C. 47 + D.C. Age (# of States)
16 (3)
16 / 6 (11)
16 / 9 (1)
17 (14)
17 / 6 (1)
18 (8 + D.C.)
Varies (12)

1 Delaware's GDL law also includes a seat belt provision. If a teen driver with a permit or their passenger under age 18 is found not to be wearing a seat belt, the permit holder will have their license suspended for 2 months.
2 At age 15, novice drivers can drive without supervision to and from work or school.
3 Those with a restricted license may only operate a vehicle owned by their parents or legal guardian and are not permitted to drive a car with more passengers than the vehicle's manufacturer recommends.

Sources: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and State Highway Safety Offices.