Teen and Novice Drivers

Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) programs allow young drivers to safely gain driving experience before obtaining full driving privileges. Most programs include three stages:

  • Learner Stage: supervised driving, cumulating with a driving test;
  • Intermediate Stage: limiting unsupervised driving in high risk situations; and
  • Full Privilege Stage: a standard driver's license.

During the 1990s, many states began enacting GDL laws. The programs and types of restrictions vary from state to state. Below are some highlights:

  • Cell Phones/Texting: 37 states and D.C. ban all cell phone use by novice drivers. (See GHSA's Cell Phone laws page for more information.)
  • Nighttime Driving Restriction: All states except Vermont restrict nighttime driving during the intermediate stage.
  • Passenger Restriction: 47 states and D.C. restrict the number of passengers during the intermediate stage.
  • Novice Driver Decal: New Jersey is the only state with a measure requiring those younger than 21 without full-privilege licenses to display a decal on their vehicle identifying them as new drivers.

NOTE: GHSA does not compile any additional data on GDL laws other than what is presented here. For more information, consult the appropriate State Highway Safety Office.

Sources: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and State Highway Safety Offices.

Short Term Description
Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) programs allow young drivers to safely gain driving experience before obtaining full driving privileges.
Wyoming
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 6 months

Wyoming
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Wyoming
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

10 days

Wyoming
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Wyoming
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Wyoming
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

11 p.m. - 5 a.m.

Wyoming
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 under 18

Wisconsin
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Wisconsin
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

30 (10)

Wisconsin
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Wisconsin
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m.

Wisconsin
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1

Wisconsin
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 9 months

Wisconsin
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

West Virginia
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

West Virginia
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

West Virginia
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

West Virginia
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10); 0 with driver's ed.

West Virginia
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

West Virginia
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

10 p.m. - 5 a.m.

West Virginia
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers under 20
Second 6 months: no more than one passenger under 20

Washington
Full Privilege Minimum Age

18 years

Washington
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15
15 / 6 without driver's ed.

Washington
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Washington
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Washington
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Washington
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

1 a.m. - 5 a.m. (secondary enforcement)

Washington
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers under 20
Remainder: no more than 3 passengers under 20 (secondary enforcement)

Virginia
Full Privilege Minimum Age

18 years

Virginia
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

Virginia
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

9

Virginia
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

45 (15)

Virginia
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 3

Virginia
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 4 a.m. (secondary enforcement)

Virginia
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 12 months: no more than 1 under 21 (secondary enforcement)
Thereafter: no more than 3 under 21 under certain conditions (secondary enforcement)

Vermont
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 6 months

Vermont
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Vermont
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

12

Vermont
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

40 (10)

Vermont
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Vermont
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

No restriction

Vermont
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 3 months: no passengers
Second 3 months: no passengers except family (secondary enforcement

Utah
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m.

Utah
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers (secondary enforcement)

Utah
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 17 years
Driving with passengers: 16 years, 6 months

Utah
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Utah
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Utah
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

40 (10)

Utah
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Texas
Full Privilege Minimum Age

18 years

Texas
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Texas
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Texas
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

30 (10)

Texas
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Texas
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m. (secondary enforcement)

Texas
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 under 21 (secondary enforcement)

Tennessee
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Tennessee
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Tennessee
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

11 p.m. - 6 a.m.

Tennessee
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1

Tennessee
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

Tennessee
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Tennessee
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

South Dakota
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years

South Dakota
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

14

South Dakota
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

180 days (less 90 days with driver's ed.)

South Dakota
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

None

South Dakota
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

14 + 180 days (less 90 days with driver's ed.)

South Dakota
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

10 p.m. - 6 a.m.

South Dakota
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

None

South Carolina
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

South Carolina
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

South Carolina
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

40 (10)

South Carolina
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

South Carolina
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

EST: 6 p.m. - 6 a.m.
EDT: 8 p.m. - 6 a.m.

South Carolina
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 2 under 21 unless to/from school

South Carolina
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 6 months

Rhode Island
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years, 6 months

Rhode Island
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Rhode Island
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Rhode Island
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Rhode Island
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 6

Rhode Island
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

1 a.m. - 5 a.m.

Rhode Island
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 12 months: no more than 1 under 21

Pennsylvania
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years with driver's ed. and 12 months free of crash or conviction
18 without driver's ed.

Pennsylvania
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Pennsylvania
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Pennsylvania
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

65 (10) + 5 in inclement weather

Pennsylvania
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 6

Pennsylvania
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

11 p.m. - 5 a.m.

Pennsylvania
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no more than 1 under 18
Thereafter: no more than 3 under 18

Oregon
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers under 20
Second 6 months: No more than 3 passengers under 20

Oregon
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

Oregon
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Oregon
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Oregon
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50; 100 without driver's ed.

Oregon
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Oregon
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m.

Oklahoma
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 6 months with driver's ed.
17 years without driver's ed.

Oklahoma
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6 with driver's ed; 15 without driver's ed

Oklahoma
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Oklahoma
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Oklahoma
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Oklahoma
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

10 p.m. - 5 a.m.

Oklahoma
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1

Ohio
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Ohio
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Age 16: Midnight - 6 a.m.
Age 17: 1 a.m. - 5 a.m. (secondary enforcement)

Ohio
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 12 months, no more than 1 unless supervised

Ohio
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 18 years
Driving with passengers: 17 years

Ohio
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

Ohio
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Ohio
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Northern Mariana Islands
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16

Northern Mariana Islands
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

Northern Mariana Islands
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

None

Northern Mariana Islands
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

None

Northern Mariana Islands
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

n/a

Northern Mariana Islands
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

n/a

Northern Mariana Islands
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

n/a

North Dakota
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

12 for drivers under 16; otherwise, 6 months or until age 18 (whichever comes first)

North Dakota
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 for drivers under 16; otherwise none

North Dakota
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16; 15 for a parent-requested restricted license (restricted license may only operate a vehicle owned by their parents or legal guardian and may not drive a car with more passengers than the vehicle's manufacturer recommends)

North Dakota
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Sunset or 9 p.m. (whichever is later) - 5 a.m.

North Dakota
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No restriction (other than vehicle manufacturer recommendations)

North Dakota
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years

North Dakota
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

14

North Carolina
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 6 months

North Carolina
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

North Carolina
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

12

North Carolina
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

60 (10) during Learner Stage
2 (6) during Intermediate Stage

North Carolina
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

North Carolina
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

9 p.m. - 5 a.m.

North Carolina
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 under 21; if passenger under 21 is family, no other non-family passengers under 21

New York
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years with driver's ed.
18 years without driver's ed.

New York
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

New York
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

New York
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (15)

New York
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 6

New York
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

9 p.m. - 5 a.m. except NYC (unsupervised driving prohibited at all times) and Long Island (limited daytime unsupervised allowed)

New York
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 under 21

New Mexico
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 6 months

New Mexico
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

New Mexico
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

New Mexico
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

New Mexico
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

New Mexico
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m.

New Mexico
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 under 21

New Jersey
Full Privilege Minimum Age

18 years

New Jersey
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

New Jersey
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

New Jersey
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

None

New Jersey
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

17

New Jersey
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

11 p.m. - 5 a.m.

New Jersey
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 (exception limited to drivers' dependents)

New Hampshire
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

1 a.m. - 4 a.m.

New Hampshire
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no more than 1 under 25

New Hampshire
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 17 years, 1 month
Driving with passengers: 16 years, 6 months

New Hampshire
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

New Hampshire
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

None

New Hampshire
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

40 (10)

New Hampshire
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Nevada
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 18 years
Driving with passengers: 16 years, 6 months

Nevada
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

Nevada
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Nevada
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10); 100 (10) if driver's ed not offered within 30 miles

Nevada
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Nevada
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

10 p.m. - 5 a.m. (secondary enforcement)

Nevada
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers under 18 (secondary enforcement)

Nebraska
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10); 0 with driver's ed.

Nebraska
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Nebraska
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 6 a.m. (secondary enforcement)

Nebraska
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no more than 1 under 19 (secondary enforcement)

Nebraska
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 17 years
Driving with passengers: 16 years, 6 months

Nebraska
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Nebraska
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Montana
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years

Montana
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

14 / 6

Montana
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Montana
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Montana
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Montana
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

11 p.m. - 5 a.m.

Montana
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no more than 1 under 18
Second 6 months: no more than 3 under 18

Missouri
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Missouri
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Missouri
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

40 (10)

Missouri
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Missouri
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

1 a.m. - 5 a.m.

Missouri
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no more than 1 under 19
Thereafter: no more than 3 under 19

Missouri
Full Privilege Minimum Age

18 years

Mississippi
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 6 months

Mississippi
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Mississippi
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

12

Mississippi
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

None

Mississippi
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Mississippi
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Sun-Thurs: 10 p.m. - 6 a.m.
Fri-Sat: 11:30 p.m. - 6 a.m.

Mississippi
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

None

Minnesota
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 16 years, 6 months
Driving with passengers: 17

Minnesota
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Minnesota
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Minnesota
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (15) or 40 (15) if parent completes 90 minute class

Minnesota
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Minnesota
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m.

Minnesota
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no more than 1 under 20
Second 6 months: no more than 3 under 20

Michigan
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 under 21

Michigan
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

Michigan
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

14 / 9

Michigan
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Michigan
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Michigan
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Michigan
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

10 p.m. - 5 a.m.

Massachusetts
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 18 years
Driving with passengers: 17 years

Massachusetts
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Massachusetts
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Massachusetts
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

40; 30 with advanced driver training

Massachusetts
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 6

Massachusetts
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

12:30 a.m. - 5 a.m. (secondary enforcement 12:30 a.m. - 1 a.m. and 4 a.m. - 5 a.m.)

Massachusetts
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers under 18

Maryland
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 6

Maryland
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m.

Maryland
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 5 months: no passengers under 18 (secondary enforcement)

Maryland
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 18 years
Driving with passengers: 16 years, 11 months

Maryland
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 9

Maryland
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

9

Maryland
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

60 (10)

Maine
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 9 months

Maine
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Maine
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Maine
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

70 (10)

Maine
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Maine
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m.

Maine
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 9 months: no passengers

Louisiana
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Louisiana
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (15)

Louisiana
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Louisiana
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

11 p.m. - 5 a.m.

Louisiana
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 under 21 between 6 p.m. - 5 a.m.

Louisiana
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

Louisiana
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Kentucky
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

Kentucky
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Kentucky
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Kentucky
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

60 (10)

Kentucky
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 6

Kentucky
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 6 a.m.

Kentucky
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 under 20 unless supervised by instructor (secondary enforcement)

Kansas
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 6 months

Kansas
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

14

Kansas
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

12

Kansas
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Kansas
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 (at 15, can drive without supervision to and from work or school)

Kansas
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

First 6 months: 9 p.m. - 5 a.m.

Kansas
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no more than 1 non-sibling

Iowa
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

Iowa
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

14

Iowa
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

12

Iowa
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

20 (2) during Learner Stage
10 (2) during Intermediate Stage

Iowa
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Iowa
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

12:30 a.m. - 5 a.m.

Iowa
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no more than 1 under 18, parents may waive

Indiana
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 18 years
Driving with passengers: 16 years, 9 months with drivers ed.; 17 years, 3 months without driver's ed.

Indiana
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 with driver's ed.
16 without driver's ed.

Indiana
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Indiana
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Indiana
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 3 with driver's ed.
16 / 9 without driver's ed.

Indiana
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

First 180 days: 10 p.m. - 5 a.m.
After 180 days: 11 p.m. - 5 a.m. (Sun-Thurs); 1 a.m. - 5 a.m. (Fri-Sat)

Indiana
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 180 days: no passengers

Illinois
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Sun-Thurs: 10 p.m. - 6 a.m
Fri-Sat: 11 p.m. - 6 a.m.

Illinois
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 12 months: no more than 1 under 20

Illinois
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 18 years
Driving with passengers: 17 years

Illinois
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Illinois
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

9

Illinois
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Illinois
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Idaho
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime driving: 16
Driving with passengers: 15 years, 6 months

Idaho
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

14 / 6

Idaho
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Idaho
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Idaho
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Idaho
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Sunset - Sunrise

Idaho
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no more than 1 under 17

Hawaii
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Hawaii
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Hawaii
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

11 p.m. - 5 a.m.

Hawaii
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 under 18

Hawaii
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

Hawaii
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

Hawaii
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Georgia
Full Privilege Minimum Age

18 years

Georgia
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

 15

Georgia
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

12

Georgia
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

40 (6)

Georgia
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Georgia
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m. (secondary enforcement)

Georgia
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers
Second 6 months: no more than 1 passenger under 21
Thereafter: No more than 3 passengers (secondary enforcement)

Florida
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Florida
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

12

Florida
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Florida
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Florida
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Age 16: 11 p.m. - 6 a.m.
Age 17: 1 a.m. - 5 a.m.

Florida
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

None

Florida
Full Privilege Minimum Age

18 years

District of Columbia
Full Privilege Minimum Age

18 years

District of Columbia
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

District of Columbia
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

District of Columbia
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

40 (10 in intermediate stage)

District of Columbia
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 6

District of Columbia
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

September through June: 11 p.m. - 6 a.m. (Sun-Thurs); Midnight - 6 a.m. (Fri-Sat)
July through August: midnight - 6 a.m.

District of Columbia
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers
Thereafter: No more than 2 passengers under 21

Delaware
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

Delaware
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Delaware
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Delaware
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Delaware
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 6

Delaware
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

10 p.m. - 6 a.m.

Delaware
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 (law also includes a seat belt provision: if a teen driver w/ permit or their passenger

Connecticut
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers except parents or instructor
Second 6 months: no passengers except parents, instructor or immediate family

Connecticut
Full Privilege Minimum Age

Nighttime Driving: 18
Driving with Passengers: 17 years, 4 months

Connecticut
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Connecticut
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

4 with driver's ed
6 without driver's ed

Connecticut
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

40

Connecticut
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16 / 4

Connecticut
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

11 p.m. - 5 a.m.

Colorado
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

Colorado
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 with driver's ed
15 / 6 with driver awareness program
16 without driver's ed. or program

Colorado
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

12

Colorado
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Colorado
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Colorado
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m. (secondary enforcement)

Colorado
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers
Second 6 months: no more than one passenger (secondary enforcement)

California
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

California
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

11 p.m. - 5 a.m. (secondary enforcement)

California
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 12 months: no passengers under 20 (secondary enforcement)

California
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17 years

California
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

California
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

California
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50 (10)

Arkansas
Full Privilege Minimum Age

18 years

Arkansas
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

14

Arkansas
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Arkansas
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

None

Arkansas
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Arkansas
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

11 p.m. - 4 a.m.

Arkansas
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1 under 21

Arizona
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Arizona
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

30 (10); 0 with driver's ed.

Arizona
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Arizona
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 5 a.m. (secondary enforcement)

Arizona
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no more than 1 under 18 (secondary enforcement)

Arizona
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 6 months

Arizona
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15 / 6

Alaska
Full Privilege Minimum Age

16 years, 6 months

Alaska
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

14

Alaska
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Alaska
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

40 (10)

Alaska
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Alaska
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

1 a.m. - 5 a.m.

Alaska
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

First 6 months: no passengers under 21

Alabama
Full Privilege Minimum Age

17

Alabama
Learner Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

15

Alabama
Learner Stage: Minimum Duration (Months)

6

Alabama
Learner Stage: Supervised Driving Hours (Night Hours in Parenthesis)

50; 0 with driver's ed.

Alabama
Intermediate Stage: Minimum Age (Years/Months)

16

Alabama
Intermediate Stage: Nighttime Driving Restriction

Midnight - 6 a.m.

Alabama
Intermediate Stage: Passenger Restrictions (Except Family, Unless Noted)

No more than 1

Teens Are Speeding – And Dying – On America’s Roads, New Report Examines ‘Lethal Habit’

Traffic deaths have surged during the Covid-19 pandemic despite fewer drivers on the roads, and speeding is thought to be a major factor. It’s too early to know exactly how many of these fatalities involve young drivers, but a new report examined the significant role speeding has played in teen driver fatalities in recent years.

Speeding Linked to Thousands of Teen Road Deaths in US

Too many teen drivers don't believe speeding is serious problem. Too many parents are unaware how fast their teens are driving. It all adds up to a deadly problem in the U.S. On Tuesday, the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) released a new report that examines the significant role speeding plays in teen driver crashes, which claimed more than 4,900 lives from 2015-19.

Almost Half of Teen Driver and Passenger Deaths in California Related to Speeding

In California, 979 teen drivers and passengers died between 2015 and 2019. Of those, 453 – or 46% – were related to speeding. Excessive vehicle speed is a factor in nearly one-third of all motor vehicle-related fatalities, according to the GHSA, but the trend has only worsened during the pandemic, with less-crowded roads inspiring more speeding.

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